THE CIVIL CODE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN
Section I. General Provisions
Chapter 1. Regulation of Civil Law Relations
Article 1. Relations Regulated by Civil Legislation
1. The civil legislation shall regulate goods and monetary relations and other property relations based on the premise of equality of the participants, as well as personal non-property relations linked to property relations. The participants of the relations regulated by the civil legislation are the citizens, legal entities, state and administrative and territorial units.
2. Personal non-property relations not linked to property relations shall be regulated by civil legislation, unless they are otherwise provided for by legislative acts or ensue from the essence of a personal property relation.
3. Civil legislation shall apply to family relations, labor relations and relations associated with the use of natural resources and the protection of the environment, which meet the requirements of paragraph 1 of this Article, in the cases where those relations are not regulated respectively by legislation concerning family, labor, use of the natural resources and protection of the environment.
4. Civil legislation shall not apply to property relations which are based on the administrative or any other power subordination of one party by the other, including tax and other budget relations, except for the cases provided for by legislative acts.
Article 2. The Basic Principles of Civil Legislation
1. Civil legislation shall be based on the principles of the equality of the all parties before the law, the inviolability of property rights, freedom of agreement, prohibition of arbitrary interference of in personal affairs, necessity of free exercise of civil rights, provision for the restitution of violated rights and their defense in the court.
2. Citizens and legal entities shall acquire and exercise their civil rights by their will and in their interests, as well as refuse from their will and in their interest, unless otherwise stipulated by legislative acts. They shall be free on establishing their rights and obligations on the basis of agreements and on specifying any their conditions, which do not contradict legislation.
3. The movement of goods, services and money shall be unrestricted in the entire territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. However, legislation will be introduced to restrict the circulation of goods and services when it is necessary to protect human safety, the environment and valuable cultural assets.
Article 3. Civil Legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan
1. The civil legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be based on the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan and consist of this Code, other laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan adopted in accordance with it, the decrees of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan having the force of laws, edicts of the Parliament, and edicts of the Senate and Mazhilis (legislative acts), as well as decrees of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, decrees of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan regulating conduct indicated in paragraphs 1 and 2 of Article 1 of this Code.
2. In case of a contradiction between the provisions of civil law which are contained in the acts of legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, except for those indicated in paragraph 3 of Article 1 of this Code, and the provisions of this Code, then the provisions of this Code shall be applied. The provisions of civil law contained in legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan and contradicting the provisions of this Code may be applied only after the introduction of the appropriate amendments into this Code.
3. This Code regulates the formation, reorganization, bankruptcy and liquidation of banks and grain procurement enterprises, the supervision of banking activities and their auditing, the supervision of activities of grain procurement enterprises, the licensing of certains of banking transactions and the performance of transactions in warehouse warrants of grain procurement enterprises, so long as this Code does not contradict the legislative acts regulating the banking business and activities of grain procurement enterprises.
Relations between banks and their clients, as well as relations between clients through banks, shall be regulated by civil legislation in accordance with the procedure established in paragraph 2 of this Article.
4. Civil relations may be regulated by tradition, including the tradition of business operation, unless it is in contradiction with the civil legislation effective in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
5. Ministries and other central executive bodies, local representative and executive bodies, may issue acts which regulate civil relations, in the cases and within the limits provided for by this Code, and by other acts of civil legislation.
6. The rights of the citizens and legal entities which are established by this Code and any other legislative acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan may not be restricted by the acts of the bodies of the state administration and local representative and executive bodies. Such acts shall be invalid from the moment of their adoption and must not be applicable.
7. Foreign individuals and legal entities and also stateless persons shall have the right to acquire the same rights and they shall be obliged to fulfill the same obligations which are provided for by civil legislation for the citizens and legal entities of the Republic of Kazakhstan, unless otherwise stipulated by the legislative acts.
8. If an international treaty ratified by the Republic of Kazakhstan establishes different rules than those contained in the civil legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the rules of the indicated treaty shall be applied. The international treaties ratified by the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be applied to civil relations directly, except for the cases where it ensues from a treaty that its application requires the issuing of a domestic Law.
Article 4. The Effect of Civil Legislation in Time
1. Civil legislation acts shall not have retroactive force and shall apply to disputes which arise after their entering into force. The legal force of a civil legislation act shall apply to relations which arose prior to its enactment in the cases where it is directly provided for by it.
2. According to the conditions which arose prior to the entering of a civil legislation act into force, it shall be applied to the rights and obligations which arise after its entering into force. Relations of parties to an agreement concluded prior to the enactment of civil legislation act which shall be regulated in accordance with Article 383 of this Code.
Article 5. Application of Civil Legislation by Analogy
1. In the cases where the relations provided for by the paragraphs 1 and 2 of Article 1 of this Code are not regulated directly by legislation or an agreement of the parties and tradition applicable to such relations does not exist, those provisions of civil legislation shall apply, which regulate similar relations (analogy of a statute), unless this contradicts their essence.
2. When it is impossible to use the analogies of law in the indicated cases, the rights and obligations of the parties shall be defined on the basis of the general fundamentals and the spirit of civil legislation as well as the requirements of good faith, reasonableness and fairness (analogy of law).
Article 6. Interpretation of Civil Legislation Provisions
1. Provisions of civil legislation must be interpreted literally. Where the possibility of different understanding of the words used in the text of legislative provisions exists, preference shall be given to that understanding which is consistent with the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the fundamental principles of civil legislation which are outlined in this Chapter, and first of all in Article 2.
2. When establishing the precise meaning of a provision in civil legislation, it shall be required to consider the historic conditions under which it was introduced and its interpretation in judicial practice, unless it contradicts the requirements specified in paragraph 1 of this Article.
Article 7. The Grounds for the Emergence of Civil Rights and Obligations
Civil rights and obligations shall arise on the grounds stipulated by legislation and also from the actions of citizens and legal entities which, although not specified in it, give rise to civil rights and obligations by virtue of the general fundamental principles and the spirit of civil legislation.
In accordance with this, civil rights and obligations shall arise:
1) from the agreements and any other transactions provided for in the legislation, and also from transactions which are not specified in the legislation, but do not contradict the legislation;
2) from the administrative acts which give rise to civil rights implications by virtue of legislation;
3) from court decisions which establish civil rights and obligations;
4) as a result of creating or acquiring assets in circumstances which are not prohibited by legislative acts;
5) as a result of creating inventions, industrial samples, works of science, literature and art and any other consequences of intellectual activity;
6) as a result of causing harm to any other person, and equally as a result of the unfair acquisition or saving of assets at to the detriment of another person (unfair enrichment);
7) as a result of any other acts of citizens and legal entities;
8) as a result of events to which legislation necessitates the emergence of civil rights.
Article 8. The Exercise of Civil Rights
1. Citizens and legal entities shall exercise civil rights belonging to them including the right to protection at their discretion.
2. The refusal of citizens and legal entities to exercise their rights shall not entail the cessation of those rights, except for the cases provided for by legislative acts.
3. The exercise of civil rights must not violate the rights and the interests of any other subjects under legislation, and it must not harm the environment.
4. Citizens and legal entities must act in good faith, reasonably and fairly when exercising their rights, and comply with the requirements contained in legislation and the moral principles of the society. Entrepreneurs must also comply with the rules of business ethics. This obligation may not be excluded or restricted by any agreement. The good faith, reasonableness and fairness of the acts of participants in civil rights relations shall be presumed.
5. Citizens and legal entities are prohibited from causing harm to any other person, abusing their rights in any other form and from using rights for any purposes other than for what they were intended.
In the case of a failure to comply with the requirements specified in paragraphs 3 to 5 of this Article the court may deny a person the protection of his right.
Article 9. Protection of Civil Rights
1. The protection of civil rights shall be exercised by the court, arbitration court or the arbitration by way of: recognition of rights; restitution of the situation that existed prior to the violation of the right; suppression of acts violating the right or creating the threat of its violation; awarding the execution of an obligation in kind; compensation of losses, damages; recognition of the transaction as invalid; compensation of moral losses; termination or alteration of legal relations; the recognition as invalid or void of an act which does not comply with legislation of a body of the state administration or of a local representative or executive body; imposition of a fine on the state body or official for impeding a citizen or a legal entity to acquire or exercise a right, and also in the other manner as provided for by legislative acts.
2. The appeal for protection of a violated right to a body of power or administration shall not prevent an appeal to the court with an action to protect a right, unless legislative acts specify otherwise.
3. In the cases which are specifically provided for in legislative acts, the protection of civil rights shall be carried out directly by actual or legal acts of the person whose right is violated (self-defense).
4. The person whose right is violated may require the entire restitution of the damages inflicted on him (her), unless otherwise stipulated by legislative acts or the agreement.
The concept of damages means the losses, which are incurred or must be incurred by the person whose right is violated, the loss or the damage of his property (real damage) and also lost profit which this person would have received under the normal conditions of the turnover, should his right have not been violated (lost profits).
5. The losses which are inflicted upon a citizen or a legal entity as a result of issuing by a governmental body of an act which does not comply with legislation, or by any other state body, and also by acts (failure to act) of the officials of those bodies, shall be subject to compensation by the Republic of Kazakhstan or by the relevant administrative and territorial unit.
6. If the emergence of the legal consequences of a violation is related to the guilt of the violator his guilt shall be presumed, except for the cases where legislative acts stipulate otherwise.
Article 10. Protection of the Rights of Entrepreneurs and Consumers
1. Entrepreneurship is the initiative activity of citizens and legal entities, irrespective of the form of ownership, which is aimed at the earning of personal net income by way of satisfying the demand for goods (work, services) which is based on the private property (private entrepreneurship) or under the economic management of a state-owned enterprise (state entrepreneurship). Entrepreneurial activity shall be carried out on behalf of, under the risk, and under the property liability of the entrepreneur.
2. The state shall guarantee, protect and support the freedom of entrepreneurial activities.
3. The rights of entrepreneurs who carry out activities which are not prohibited by legislation shall be protected as follows:
1) by the possibility to carry out entrepreneurial activities without obtaining anyone's permission, except for thoses of activity which are subject to licensing;
2) by a simplified procedure for the registration of any of entrepreneurship in all economic sectors by one registering authority;
3) by restricting, through legislative acts, those audits which are carried out by the state bodies;
4) by a compulsory termination of entrepreneurial activities based only upon the decision of the court, which is passed on the grounds established by legislative acts;
5) by establishing through legislative acts of the lists of operations ands of goods and services which are prohibited for private entrepreneurship, or restricted for export and import;
6) by holding the state bodies, officials and any other persons and organizations responsible for loss to the entrepreneurs and for illegal impediments to their activities;
6-1) by prohibiting to executive, supervisory and monitoring bodies, to enter into contractual relations with entrepreneurial entities for the matter of performing the obligations which are the function of those bodies;
7) by any other means provided for by legislation.
4. Introduction of the licensing order for the certains of activity shall be specified to ensure national security, legal order, protection of the environment, property rights and the welfare of citizens. Licensing of the certains of activities shall be specified in cases of requirement established by the Laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the goods, requirements of obligatory confirmation of correspondence of the certains of goods, processes and (or) the state control over the activities are insufficient to achieve the goals of public administration.
5. A commercial (entrepreneurial) secret shall be protected by law. The procedure for identifying the information which constitutes a commercial secret, the methods of its protection and also the list of information which must not be included among commercial secrets shall be established by legislation.
6. The protection of the rights of consumers shall be ensured by the means provided by this Code and any other legislative acts.
In particular, each consumer shall have the right:
- to freely enter agreements to purchase goods and to employ work and services;
- to proper quality and safety of goods (work, services);
- to full and reliable information on goods (work, services);
- and the right to join public associations of consumers.
Article 11. Prohibition of Abusing the Freedom of Entrepreneurship
1. Monopolistic activities and any other activities aimed to restrict or eliminate legal competition or the extraction of unreasonable advantages by the restriction of rights and legitimate interests of consumers, shall not be allowed.
2. Except for the cases provided for by legislative acts, the use by entrepreneurs of civil rights for the purpose of restricting competition shall not be allowed, in particular:
1) the abuse by entrepreneurs of their dominant position in the market to restrict or terminate the production or reserve from commodity circulation in order to create shortages or increase the prices;
2) making and implementing by persons who carry out similar entrepreneurial activities of agreements concerning prices, subdivision of markets, elimination of any other entrepreneurs or any other conditions which materially restrict competition;
3) commission of unfair acts which are aimed at restriction of the legitimate interests of a person who performs similar entrepreneurial activities and of consumers (unfair competition), in particular, the misleading of consumers with regard to the manufacturer, designation, method and place of manufacture, quality or any other properties of goods of other entrepreneurs, by way of unfair comparison of goods in advertising and in any other information, copying external design of somebody else's goods and by any other methods.
Measures aimed to control unfair competition shall be established by legislative acts.
Chapter 2. The subjects of the Civil Rights
Article 12. The Definition of an Individual
Citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan, citizens of other states, as well as stateless persons shall be understood to be individual persons. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to any individual persons, unless they are otherwise established by this Code.
Article 13. The Legal Capacity of Citizens
1. The capacity to have civil rights and bear obligations (civil rights capacity) shall be recognized as equal to all citizens.
2. The legal capacity of a citizen shall arise at the moment of his birth and it shall cease with his death.
Article 14. The principal Contents of the Legal Capacity of a Citizen
A citizen may own properties including foreign currency, both within the boundaries of the Republic of Kazakhstan and beyond its boundaries; inherit and bequest property; move freely in the territory of the Republic and select the place of residence; freely leave the boundaries of the Republic and return to its territory; engage in any activities which are not prohibited by legislative acts; create legal entities independently or with other citizens and legal entities, enter into any transactions which are not prohibited by legislative acts and participate in obligations; have the right to intellectual property with regard to inventions, works of science, literature and art and any other results of intellectual activity; claim the compensation for financial and moral damage; have any other property rights and personal rights.
Article 15. The name of a Citizen
1. A citizen shall acquire and exercise the rights and obligations under his (her) name including the surname and the proper name and at his (her) discretion - the patronymic name.
2. Legislation may provide for cases of anonymous acquisition of the rights and execution of obligations, or the use of a pen name (fictitious name) by citizens.
3. The name which is received by a citizen at his birth and also the change of the name shall be subject to registration in accordance with the procedure established by legislation concerning the registration of civil status acts.
4. A citizen shall have the right to change his name in accordance with the procedure established by legislative acts. The change of name shall not be the basis for the cessation or alteration of his rights and obligations which are acquired under the former name, anonymously or under a pseudonym.
5. A citizen shall be obliged to take appropriate steps to notify his debtors and creditors of a change of his name and he shall bear the risk associated with the consequences which are caused by those persons' unawareness of the change of his name.
6. A citizen who has changed his (her) name shall have the right to require the introduction of the appropriate amendments into the documents formulated for his (her) former name.
7. The acquisition of rights and obligations under the name of a different person shall not be allowed.
8. A citizen shall have the right to require the prohibition of the use of his (her) name when the use was done without his (her) consent.
9. The harm caused to a citizen as a result of the illicit use of his (her) name shall be subject to compensation in accordance with the provisions of this Code. In the case of a distortion or use of a citizen's name by ways or in a manner which affect his (her) honor, dignity or business reputation, the rules provided by Article 143 of this Code shall be applied.
With distortion or use of a citizen or as a way that affects their honor, dignity and business reputation, the rules provided in Article 143 of this Code shall be applied.
Article 16. The Place of Residence and Legal Address of a Citizen
1. The populated area where a citizen permanently or predominantly resides shall be recognized as the place of domicile of the citizen.
2. The place of residence of the parents, adopters or guardians of persons who have not reached 14 years of age or citizens who are under guardianship, shall be recognized as their place of domicile.
3. A citizen has a legal address used in relations with individuals and legal entities, as well as the state.
Legal address of the citizen is the place of his (her) registration.
The procedure of registration of citizens is defined by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Article 17. The Legal Capacity of Citizens
1. The capacity of a citizen to acquire and exercise civil rights, create for himself (herself) civil obligations and execute them (citizen's deed capacity) shall arise in their entire volume when the citizen reaches the age of majority, that is, upon reaching eighteen years of age.
2. In the case where legislative acts allow entering into marriage prior to reaching eighteen years of age, a citizen who has not reached 18 years of age shall acquire legal capacity in its entire volume from the moment of entering into marriage.
3. All citizens shall have equal legal capacity, unless it is otherwise provided for by legislative acts.
Article 18. The Prohibition of Deprivation and Restriction of Legal Competence and Legal Capacity
1. No one may be restricted in legal capacity and legal capacity otherwise than in the cases and in order to the procedure provided for by legislative acts.
2. The non-compliance with the conditions and the procedure established by legislative acts for restricting the legal competence and the legal capacity of citizens or of their right to engage in entrepreneurial or any other activities shall entail the invalidity of the act of the state body or any other authority which established that restriction.
3. An entire or a partial rejection by a citizen of his (her) legal competence or legal capacity and any other transactions aimed at restricting the legal competence or legal capacity, shall be invalid except for the cases where such transactions are permitted by legislative acts.
Article 19. Entrepreneurial Activities of Citizens
1. Citizens shall have the right to engage in entrepreneurial activities without creating legal entities except for the cases provided for by this Code and other legislative acts.
2. The state registration of private entrepreneurs shall be based on arrival and shall consist of registration as an individual entrepreneur.
3. The rules of this Code which regulate activities of the legal entities which are commercial organizations shall apply accordingly to entrepreneurial activities of citizens which are performed without formation of a legal entity, unless they otherwise ensue from legislation or from the essence of the legal relations.
4. Individual entrepreneurs who are subject to one of the following conditions shall be subject to obligatory state registration:
1) use work of hired workers on a permanent basis;
2) have annual gross income from business activities, calculated in accordance with tax legislation, in the amount exceeding the non-taxable amount of the gross annual income specified for individual legislative acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan, except for those specified in paragraph 4.1 of this Article
Activities of specified individual entrepreneurs shall be prohibited without state registration except the case provided for by the Tax Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
4-1. An individual person who does not employ workers on a permanent basis, may not be registered as an individual entrepreneur in case of obtaining the following income provided for by tax legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan:
1) imposed at a source of payment;
2) property income;
3) other income.
5. When an individual entrepreneur carries out activities which are subject to licensing, he must have a license for the right to carry out such an activity. Licenses shall be issued in accordance with the procedure established by legislation concerning licensing.
The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan shall have the right to establish a simplified procedure for issuing licenses to individual entrepreneurs.
Article 20. Property Liability of a Citizen
1. A citizen shall be liable for his (her) obligations with all the property he (she) has, except for the property upon which in accordance with legislative acts claims may not be imposed.
2. The list of the property of citizens upon which claims may not be imposed shall be established by the Civil Procedural Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Article 21. Bankruptcy of an Individual Entrepreneur
1. Insolvency of an individual entrepreneur (Article 52 of this Code) shall be the basis for his recognition as bankrupt.
2. Bankruptcy of an individual entrepreneur shall be recognized in a voluntary or compulsory procedure in accordance with the rules established by Article 53 of this Code. From the moment of recognition of an individual entrepreneur as bankrupt his (her) registration as individual entrepreneur shall become invalid.
3. When bankruptcy procedures are applied to an individual entrepreneur, his creditors with regard to obligations which are not connected to entrepreneurial activities shall also have the right to file claims provided the date of execution with regard to such obligations has arrived. Claims of specified creditors which are not filed by them in such a procedure as well as claims which have not been satisfied in full volume out of competitive estate, shall remain valid and may be filed against a debtor who is a private person for collection after the completion of bankruptcy procedures. Amounts of such claims shall be reduced by amounts of satisfaction received in the procedure of debtor's bankruptcy.
4. Court expenses as well as expenses associated with remuneration to the administrator, competitive or rehabilitation managers if they were appointed shall be covered out of competitive estate prior to the satisfaction of creditors' claims. Satisfaction of creditors' claims against an individual entrepreneur in the case of his (her) recognition as bankrupt shall be carried out at the expense of his (her) properties in the following sequence:
1) in the first line the claims associated with collection of alimonies and with compensation for harm caused to lives and health shall be satisfied;
2) the claims of the creditors which are secured with pledge of property owned by the individual entrepreneur shall be satisfied in the second line, within the limits of the pledged amount;
3) in the third line, the liability shall be repaid with regard to obligatory payments to the Budget and non-budgetary funds;
4) the settlements associated with work remuneration of persons who work under service agreements, and payment of remuneration on authorship agreements shall be carried out in the fourth line;
5) in the fifth line, the settlements with other creditors shall be carried out in accordance with legislative acts.
5. After the completion of settlements with creditors, a debtor recognized as bankrupt shall be released from execution of outstanding obligations connected to entrepreneurial activity, except for claims of citizens to whom a person announced as bankrupt is liable for causing harm to live or health, as well as other claims of personal nature as provided for by the legislative acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Article 22. Legal Capacity of Minors at the Ages from Fourteen to Eighteen
1. Minors at the age from fourteen to eighteen shall enter into transactions with the consent of their legal representatives. The form of such consent must be consistent with the form which is established by legislation for transactions entered into by minors.
2. Minors from fourteen to eighteen years old shall have the right to independently dispose of their wages, grants and any other income and the intellectual property rights associated with the paragraphs created by them, and also to enter into small day-to-day transactions.
3. When there are sufficient reasons, the body of guardianship and sponsorship may restrict or deprive the minor of the right to independently dispose of his (her) wages, grants and any other income and of the intellectual property paragraphs created by him (her).
4. Minors at the age from fourteen to eighteen shall independently bear responsibility with regard to the transactions committed by them in accordance with the rules of this Article and they shall be held responsible for any harm caused by their acts, in accordance with the rules of this Code.
Article 22-1. Announcement of a Minor’s Full Legal Capacity (Emancipation)
1. A minor who has reached the age of 16 may be declared emancipated if he (she) works under an employment contract or with the consent of his (her) legal representatives is engaged in entrepreneurial activities.
2. The Declaration of a minor's full legal capacity (emancipation) shall be carried out by decision of the tutelage and guardianship authorities with the consent of their legal representatives or in the absence of such agreement, by a court decision.
3. An emancipated minor shall have civil rights and obligations (including for obligations which have arisen as a result of harm inflicted by him/her), except those rights and obligations for the acquisition of which by the legislative acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the age limit.
Legal representatives are not liable for the obligations of an emancipated minor.
Article 23. The Legal Capacity of Minors Under Fourteen (Children)
1. For minors (children) who have not reached 14 years of age transactions shall be committed by their legal representatives on their behalf, unless otherwise provided for by legislative acts.
2. Minors (children) under the age of fourteen years shall have the right to independently enter only into small day-to-day transactions which are performed at the moment of their instigation.
Article 24. The Consent of the Bodies of Guardianship and Sponsorship to Commitment of Transactions by Minors and on Behalf of Minors
Legislative acts may establish cases where the commitment of a transaction by a minor and on behalf of a minor shall require prior consent of the guardianship or sponsorship authorities.
Article 25. The Right of Minors to Lodge Savings into Banks and to Dispose of Savings
1. Minors shall have the right to lodge their savings in banks and to independently dispose of their savings which are lodged by themselves.
2. Savings which are lodged by somebody else on behalf of minors who have not reached fourteen years of age, shall be managed of by their parents or any other legitimate representatives, while minors who have reached fourteen years of age may independently dispose of savings lodged on their behalf by somebody else.
Article 26. The Recognition of a Citizen as Legally Incapable
1. A citizen who, as a result of psychiatric disease or mental disability, cannot understand the meaning of his (her) acts or direct them, may be recognized by the court as incapable, and in this connection, guardianship shall be established over him (her).
2. On behalf of citizens recognized as incapable, the transactions shall be carried out by his (her) guardian.
3. In the case of a recovery or a significant improvement of the health of the incapable person, the court shall recognize him (her) as capable, after which guardianship shall be alleviated over him (her).
Article 27. Restriction of Citizen’s Legal Capacity
1. A citizen who consequential to the abuse of alcoholic drinks or narcotic substances puts his (her) family into a difficult financial position may be restricted by the court with regard to his legal capacity in accordance with the procedure established by the Civil Procedural Code of the Republic of Kaza khstan. Guardianship shall be established over him (her). He (she) shall have the right to independently enter into small day-today transactions. He (she) may commit any other transactions, receive wages, pensions and any other income, and he (she) may only dispose of them with the consent of the tutor.
2. If a citizen ceases the abuse of alcoholic drinks or narcotic substances, the court shall abolish restrictions of his (her) capacity. On the basis of the court decision the tutorship established over the citizen shall be abolished.
Article 28. The Recognition of a Citizen as Missing
1. Pursuant to the application of interested persons a citizen may be recognized by the court as missing, if within one year in the place of his (her) domicile there is no information on his (her) whereabouts.
2. When it is impossible to establish the date of receipt of the last information concerning the missing person, the beginning of the absence shall be deemed to be the first date of the month following the one in which the last information was received on the absentee, and if it is impossible to establish that month, - it shall be the first of January of the following year.
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